Dr Rose honoured me with a request for a Foreword. I am delighted to oblige. The treatment of valvular heart disease has improved remarkably in the past 40 years. Many factors have contributed; not least being the introduction of artificial heart valves for treatment, more than 25 years ago. Their use has shown that they are good, but not an ideal substitute for native valves. A galaxy of pathological changes are associated with the insertion and malfunction of artificial heart valves. Each has to be defined, classified and related to clinical procedures or problems with a prosthesis; then a means sought to prevent them. Often, in understanding their cause, investigative procedures have/will improve patient care and broaden knowledge in other spheres. Dr Rose has been a student of this pathology for many years and has made many contributions. No doubt his interest in the area was whetted by colleagues in Cape Town, leaders in the field of cardiovascular medicine and surgery. This monograph provides a collected review of his experience. In it one finds lessons in geographic pathology, in considering the causes of valvular heart disease in Cape Town and valuable information regarding the identification of artificial heart valves and a means of examining a heart bearing one.